DefinitionA decreased appetite is when you have a reduced desire to eat. The medical term for a loss of appetite is anorexia.
Alternative NamesLoss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia
ConsiderationsAny illness can affect a previously hearty appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured.Loss of appetite can cause unintentional weight loss.
Common CausesA decreased appetite is almost always seen among elderly adults, and no cause may be found. However, sadness, depression, grief, or anxiety are a common cause of weight loss that is not explained by other factors, especially among the elderly.Cancer may also cause decreased appetite. You may lose weight without trying. Cancers that may cause you to lose your appetite include:Colon cancerOvarian cancerStomach cancerPancreatic cancerOther causes of decreased appetite include:Chronic liver diseaseChronic kidney failureCOPDDementiaHeart failureHepatitisHIVHypothyroidismPregnancy (first trimester)Use of certain medications, including antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, codeine, and morphineUse of street drugs including amphetamines (speed), cocaine, and heroin
Home CarePeople with a cancer or a chronic illness will need to learn how to increase protein and calorie intake by eating high-calorie, nutritious snacks or several small meals during the day. Liquid protein drinks may be helpful.Family members should try to supply favorite foods to help stimulate the person's appetite.Keep a record of what you eat and drink for 24 hours. This is called a diet history.
Call your health care provider ifCall your health care provider if you are losing a lot of weight without trying.Encourage the person to seek medical help if their decreased appetite occurs along with other signs of depression, drug or alcohol abuse, or an eating disorder.For loss of appetite caused by taking medications, ask your health care provider about changing the dosage or drug. Never stop taking medications without first talking to your health care provider.
What to expect at your health care provider's officeThe health care provider will perform a physical exam and will check the person's height and weight.The health care provider will ask questions about the person's diet and medical history. Questions may include:Is the decreased appetite severe or mild?Has the person lost any weight? How much?Is the decreased appetite a new symptom?If so, did it start after an upsetting event, such as a death of a family member or friend?What other symptoms are present?Tests that may be done to determine the cause of a decreased appetite include:Abdominal ultrasoundBarium enema, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy (if colon cancer is suspected)Complete blood count (CBC)Erythrocyte sedimentation rateHIV testKidney function testsLiver function testsPregnancy testThyroid function testsUpper GI seriesUrine drug screeningIn cases of severe malnutrition, nutrients are given through a vein (intravenously). This may require a hospital stay.
ReferencesMason JB. Nutritional Assessment and Management of the Malnourished Patient. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 4.Stewart GD. Skipworth RJE, Fearon KCH. The Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome. In: Walsh D, Caraceni AT, Fainsinger R, et al, eds. Palliative Medicine. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 106.Rakel RE, Strauch EM. Care of the dying patient. In: Rake lRE, ed. Textbook of Family Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 5.Mcquaid K. Approach to the patient with gastrointestinal disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 134.