DefinitionBreath odor is the scent of the air you breathe out of your mouth. Unpleasant, distinctive, or offensive breath odor is commonly called bad breath.
Alternative NamesBad breath; Halitosis
ConsiderationsSome disorders will produce specific, characteristic odors to the breath.Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of sulphur compounds by bacteria in the mouth.A fruity odor to the breath occurs as the body attempts to get rid of excess acetone through the breathing. This is a sign of ketoacidosis, which may occur in diabetes. It is a potentially life-threatening condition.Breath that smells like feces can occur with prolonged vomiting, especially when there is a bowel obstruction. It may also occur temporarily if a person has a tube placed through the nose or mouth to the stomach to drain the stomach contents (nasogastric tube) in place.The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or "fishy") in people with chronic kidney failure.
Common CausesBad breath can be caused by:Abscessed toothAlcoholismCavitiesDenturesEating certain foods, such as cabbage, garlic, or raw onionsDrinking coffee and other beveragesObject stuck in the nose (usually happens in kids); often a white, yellow, or bloody discharge from one nostrilGERD
Gum disease (gingivitis, gingivostomatitis)Impacted toothLung infectionPoor dental hygieneSinusitisThroat infectionTobacco smokingVitamin supplements (especially in large doses)Use of certain medications, including insulin shots, triamterene, and paraldehydeDiseases that may be associated with breath odor: Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitisAcute necrotizing ulcerative mucositisAcute renal failureBowel obstruction (can cause breath to smell like feces)BronchiectasisChronic kidney failure (can cause breath to smell like ammonia)Diabetes (fruity or sweet chemical smell with ketoacidosis)Esophageal cancerGastric carcinomaGastrojejunocolic fistula (fruity-smelling breath)Hepatic encephalopathyDiabetic ketoacidosisLung abscessOzena, or atrophic rhinitisPeriodontal diseasePharyngitisZenker's diverticulum
Home CareUse proper dental hygiene (especially flossing), and remember that mouthwashes are not effective in treating the underlying problem. Fresh parsley or a strong mint are often effective ways to fight temporary bad breath. Avoid smoking. Otherwise, follow prescribed therapy to treat the underlying cause.
Call your health care provider ifBreath odor persists and there is not an obvious cause (such as smoking or eating odor-causing foods).You have breath odor and signs of a respiratory infection, such as fever, cough, or face pain with discharge from the nose
What to expect at your health care provider's officeYour doctor will take a medical history and perform a physical examination.You may be asked the following medical history questions:Is there a specific odor?Is there a fishy smell?Does the breath smell like ammonia or urine?Does the breath smell like fruit or is there a sweet-chemical smell?Does the breath smell like feces?Does the breath smell like alcohol?Have you recently eaten a spicy meal, garlic, cabbage, or other "odorous" food?Do you take vitamin supplements?Do you smoke?Does good oral hygiene improve the odor?What home care measures have you tried? How effective are they?Is there a recent sore throat, sinus infection, tooth abscess, or other illness?What other symptoms do you have?The physical examination will include a thorough examination of the mouth and the nose. A throat culture may be taken if you have a sore throat or mouth sores.In rare cases, diagnostic tests that may be performed include:Blood tests to screen for diabetes or kidney failureEndoscopy (EGD)X-ray of the abdomenX-ray of the chestAntibiotics may be prescribed for some conditions. For an object in the nose, the doctor will use an instrument to remove it.