DefinitionMononucleosis is a viral infection causing fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, especially in the neck.See also: Infectious mononucleosis (acute CMV infection)
Alternative NamesMono; Kissing disease
Causes, incidence, and risk factorsMononucleosis, or mono, is often spread by saliva and close contact. It is known as "the kissing disease," and occurs most often in those age 15 to 17. However, the infection may develop at any age.Mono is usually linked to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), but can also be caused by other organisms such as cytomegalovirus (CMV).
SymptomsMono may begin slowly with fatigue, a general ill feeling, headache, and sore throat. The sore throat slowly gets worse. Your tonsils become swollen and develop a whitish-yellow covering. The lymph nodes in the neck are frequently swollen and painful.A pink, measles-like rash can occur and is more likely if you take the medicines ampicillin or amoxicillin for a throat infection. (Antibiotics should NOT be given without a positive Strep test.)Symptoms of mononucleosis include:DrowsinessFeverGeneral discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feelingLoss of appetiteMuscle aches or stiffnessRashSore throatSwollen lymph nodes, especially in the neck and armpitSwollen spleenLess frequently occurring symptoms include:Chest painCoughFatigueHeadacheHivesJaundice (yellow color to the skin)Neck stiffnessNosebleedRapid heart rateSensitivity to lightShortness of breath
Signs and testsThe doctor or nurse will examine you. This may show that you have: Swollen lymph nodes in the front and back of your neckSwollen tonsils with a whitish-yellow coveringSwollen liver or spleenSkin rashBlood tests will be done, including: White blood cell (WBC) count - will be higher than normal Monospot test - will be positive for infectious mononucleosis.Antibody titer - tells the difference between a current and previous infection
TreatmentThe goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms. Steroid medicine (prednisone) may be given if symptoms are severe. Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir have little or no benefit.To relieve typical symptoms:Drink plenty of fluids.Gargle with warm salt water to ease a sore throat.Get plenty of rest.Take acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain and fever.You should also avoid contact sports while the spleen is swollen (to prevent it from rupturing).
Expectations (prognosis)The fever usually drops in 10 days, and swollen lymph glands and spleen heal in 4 weeks. Fatigue usually goes away within a few weeks, but may linger for 2 to 3 months.
Complications of mononucleosis may include:
Bacterial infection of the throatHemolytic anemiaHepatitis with jaundice (more common in patients older than 35)Inflammation of the testicles (orchitis)Nervous system problems (rare), such as:
Guillain-Barre syndromeMeningitisSeizuresTemporary facial paralysis (Bell's palsy)Uncoordinated movements (ataxia)Spleen rupture (rare; avoid pressure on the spleen)Skin rash (Gianotti-Crosti syndrome - acrodermatitis ofchildhood)Death is possible in people who have a weakened immune system.
Calling your health care providerThe initial symptoms of mono feel very much like a typical viral illness. It is not necessary to contact a health care provider unless symptoms last longer than 10 days or you develop the following:Abdominal painBreathing difficultyPersistent high fevers (more than 101.5°F)Severe headacheSevere sore throat or swollen tonsilsWeakness in the arm or legsYellow discoloration of your eyes or skinCall 911 or go to an emergency room if you develop:Sharp, sudden, severe abdominal painSignificant difficulty swallowing or breathingStiff neck or severe weakness
PreventionPersons with mononucleosis may be contagious while they have symptoms and for up to a few months afterwards. How long someone with the disease is contagious varies. The virus can live for several hours outside the body. Avoid kissing or sharing utensils if you or someone close to you has mono.
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